Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse
Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by ERS for enhanced digestion by livestock
Sugarcane bagasse as Cattle feed
The sugar-cane factories have a surplus of bagasse and in some cases the accumulation of this by-product has become a problem. The sugar-cane bagasse when treated, in order to improve its degradability, is a potentially good resource to use as the basal diet in the feeding of cattle and ruminants in general.
The treatment of bagasse in ERS with steam alone results in a big increment in the degradability of this by-product. The subsequent fermentation with microbes improves its degradability. Further Investigation must be made to try to identify this effect.
Why Pretreatment of Sugarcane bagasse a necessity?
Agricultural by-products like cereal straws and sugar-cane bagasse are high in ligno-cellulose. Bagasse also contains more than 60% of its dry matter in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose but its degradability is very poor.
Sugar- cane bagasse contains around 50% cellulose, 27.9% hemicellulose, 9.8% lignin and 11.3% cell contents (Kewalramani et al 1988).
It has been recognized that in order to improve the nutritive value of ligno-cellulosic materials for livestock, some form of pretreatment of processing of the plant material is required (Helmling et al 1989).
Polysaccharide degradation in the rumen takes place as the result of the action of a consortium of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and phycomycete fungi and, even so, its bioconversion is far from complete. Hence a pretreatment of bagasse is required to increase the rate and extent of holocellulose hydrolysis, in order to alter significantly the structural characteristics of the ligno- cellulosic matrix. Such a pre-treatment must enhance the close contact between microbe and fibres to provide an efficient enzyme action
Conventional method of Pretreatment of Sugarcane bagasse
Steam Pressure treatment:
- Crude fiber is reduced. NDF was reduced from 83 to 51%; however, there was little change in ADF, cellulose and lignin content.
- Completely modified the hemicellulose fraction of raw bagasse, changing it into more soluble components, but did not affect the ligno- cellulose components (Wong et al1974; Pate 1982; Kling et al1987)
- Sodium hydroxide and anhydrous ammonia have been the most widely used for treating raw bagasse.
- Sodium hydroxide has been used at an application rate of 4% by weight of straw and is effective in increasing the digestibility and palatability.
- Sodium hydroxide is expensive and leads to pollution
- Ammonia treatment is less rapid than sodium hydroxide and its applicability is limited
Why Pretreatment of Sugarcane bagasse by ERS?
Biological treatment of fibrous material is attracting attention of the scientists all over the world. The main objective of ERS in Pretreatment of baggase would be to improve the rumen degradability of baggase by increasing the nutrient availability by in-vessel fermenting using a combination of microbes, Shimose 1, Shimose2 and Shimose 3. The degradation of baggase during solid state fermentation in the ERS with Effective Microbes is not only influenced by the bagasse quality but also by its particle size, that shall be shredded before subjecting into the chamber.
Fermentation of Bagasse by ERS at Daifuku Daily Farm (Miyako island, Okinawa, Japan)?
The fermentation results in the bio-feed which generate sweet smell and makes it palatable for cattle. The digestion level was much improved.
The bio-feed was mixed with dried grasses and fed to Cows.
Bagasse Feed formulation*
A feed of following formulation was found to be quite effective for maintenance of breedable animals in good condition.
Processed Bagasse 62%
Mineral Mixture 1% &
Vitamin AD3 @ 200 gm/M.T.
Further studies on growing animals indicated that a feed of following formulation can support growth rate of 400 gms per day in cross-bred heifers.
Processed Bagasse 40%
Mineral Mixture 1% &
Vitamin AD3 @ 200 gm/M.T.
Urea was used as a source of nitrogen.
* The feeding trials were conducted at BAIF Development Research Foundation (formerly registered as the Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation) at Urulikanchan in Maharashtra
Objectives of HOW Biomass
- To explore the use of non-conventional feed material namely bagasse and molasses for alternate feed material for cattle development in country.
- To explore ERS technology for pre-treating of bagasse, which has till now been under utilized as cattle feed due to its palatability and digestibility.
- To build synergistic partnership with sugar industries who utilize bagasse as fuel for their boilers but are still left with substantial quantities of surplus bagasse. The availability of surplus bagasse is generally 3-4%of the cane crushed (about 30% sugarcane crushed out as bagasse). Excess steam is available in all the units throughout the crushing season (120-150 days) at very low cost.
Operating Cost of ERS Technology for Processing of Raw bagasse
Size of Plant : 250 tpd
Specification of ERS unit : 50 tpd capacity x 3 Units
Input : Shredded Raw bagasse
Processing per cycle : 5 tonnes
Number of cycles per day : 17 cycles x 3 Units
Duration/cycle of processing : 1 Hr
Process : Fermenting only
Moisture Content of Input : 40%
Output : Processed bagasse
Output weight/Input weight : 61.3%
Output production : 153.3 tpd
Moisture Content of output : 10%
Operating Cost : Rs. 725 per ton of output
(labor, electricity and fuel for boiler)